It takes the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy 28,250 words to explain the woolly concept of relativism. It takes Genis Carreras 32 words and a single image. If you ask me, he doesn’t even need the text.


Philographics is all about explaining big ideas in simple shapes, merging the world of philosophy and graphic design. Here are ninety-five designs, each depicting a different “–ism” using a unique combination of geometric shapes, colors, and a short definition of the theory.

Genis Carreras writes:

The visuals [are] open to different interpretations, allowing the reader to draw their path to connect the idea behind each theory with its form. This plurality reflects all the different theories to see and understand the world that are compiled [in] this book. The book aims to be the starting point of deeper discussion about these theories; it’s a trigger of conversation to bring philosophy back to our daily lives.

Maria Popova from Brainpickings says: Perhaps most importantly, these minimalist graphics are designed to tickle our curiosity and spark deeper interest in influential theories of human nature and human purpose that those of us not formally trained in philosophy may not have previously been inspired to explore.


True knowledge or certainty in a particular area is impossible. Skeptics have an attitude of doubt or a disposition of incredulity either in general or toward a particular object.


Points of view have no absolute truth or validity, having only relative, subjective value according to differences in perception and consideration. Principles and ethics are regarded as applicable in only limited context.


An absolute truth is always correct under any condition. An entity’s ability to discern these things is irrelevant to that state of truth. Universal facts can be discovered. It is opposed to relativism, which claims that there is not an unique truth.

The only authentic knowledge is that which is based on sense, experience and positive verification. Scientific method is the best process for uncovering the processes by which both physical and human events occur.

Knowledge arises from evidence gathered via sense experience. Empiricism emphasizes the role of experience and evidence, especially sensory perception, in the formation of ideas, over the notion of innate ideas or tradition.


Human beings can lead happy and functional lives, and are capable of being ethical and moral without religion or dogma. Life stance emphasized the unique responsibility facing humanity and the ethical consequences of human decisions.

Pleasure is the only intrinsic good. Actions can be evaluated in terms of how much pleasure they produce. In very simple terms, a hedonist strives to maximize the pleasure and minimize the pain.
Submission to authority and opposed to individualism and democracy. An authoritarian government is one in which political power is concentrated in a leader who possesses exclusive, unaccountable, and arbitrary power.

Events within a given paradigm are bound by causality in such a way that any state of an object or event is determined by prior states. Every type of event, including human cognition (behavior, decision, and action) is causally determined by previous events.


Knowledge of anything outside one’s own specific mind is unjustified. The external world and other minds cannot be known and might not exist.





1. A Hard Day’s Night (1964) – The Beatles
2. The Sound of Music (1965) – Rodgers and Hammerstein
3. Saturday Night Fever (1977) – Bee Gees/Various
4. West Side Story (1961) – L. Bernstein/S. Sondheim
5. The Wizard of Oz (1939) – Harold Arlen/Cast
6. Superfly (1972) – Curtis Mayfield
7. The Graduate (1967) – Simon & Garfunkel
8. The Godfather (1972) – Nino Rota
9. Purple Rain (1984) – Prince

10. 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) – Various
11. Oklahoma! (1955) – Rodgers and Hammerstein
12. The Harder They Come (1973) – Various
13. Psycho (1960) – Bernard Herrmann
14. Snow White and The Seven Dwarfs (1937) – Frank Churchill/Larry Morey
15. American Graffiti (1973) – Various
16. Vertigo (1958) – Bernard Herrmann
17. Trainspotting (1996) – Various
18. My Fair Lady (1964) – Various
19. Gone With the Wind (1939) – Max Steiner
20. Mary Poppins (1964) – Richard and Robert Sherman

21. Once Upon a Time in the West (1969) – Ennio Morricone
22. Pat Garrett & Billy the Kid (1973) – Bob Dylan
23. Pinocchio (1940) – Leigh Harline and Ned Washington
24. Goldfinger (1964) – John Barry
25. Singin’ In the Rain (1952) – Arthur Freed and Nacio Herb Brown
26. Star Wars (1977) – John Williams
27. Grease (1978) – Various
28. Pulp Fiction (1994) – Various
29. Doctor Zhivago (1965) – Maurice Jarre
30. The Rocky Horror Picture Show (1975) – Richard O’Brien

31. Easy Rider (1969) – Various
32. Ben-Hur (1959) – Miklos Rozsa
33. Help! (1965) – The Beatles
34. Bride of Frankenstein (1935) – Franz Waxman
35. Performance (1970) – Jack Nitzsche
36. The Band Wagon (1953) – Arthur Schwartz and Howard Deitz
37. Chinatown (1974) – Jerry Goldsmith
38. Cabaret (1972) – John Kander and Fred Ebb
39. King Kong (1933) – Max Steiner
40. Shaft (1971) – Isaac Hayes

41. Lawrence of Arabia (1962) – Maurice Jarre
42. Carousel (1956) – Rodgers and Hammerstein
43. The Pink Panther (1964) – Henry Mancini
44. Anatomy of a Murder (1959) – Duke Ellington
45. Let It Be (1970) – The Beatles
46. Fantasia (1940) – Various
47. The Magnificent Seven (1960) – Elmer Bernstein
48. Meet Me In St. Louis (1944) – Hugh Martin and Ralph Blaine
49. The Adventures of Robin Hood (1938) – Erich Wolfgang Korngold
50. Oliver! (1968) – Lionel Bart

51. The Sting (1973) – Marvin Hamlisch
52. Funny Girl (1968) – Walter Scharf and Julie Styne
53. Jaws (1975) – John Williams
54. Woodstock (1970) – Various
55. The Music Man (1962) – Meredith Willson
56. O Brother, Where Art Thou? (2000) – Various
57. Amadeus (1984) – Various
58. The King and I (1956) – Rodgers and Hammerstein
59. Beat Street (1984) – Various
60. The Man With the Golden Arm (1955) – Elmer Bernstein

61. The Mission (1986) – Ennio Morricone
62. Pretty in Pink (1986) – Various
63. Taxi Driver (1976) – Bernard Herrmann
64. The Last Waltz (1978) – The Band
65. Jailhouse Rock (1957) – Leiber and Stoller/Elvis Presley
66. Singles (1992) – Various
67. Manhattan (1979) – George Gershwin
68. South Park: Bigger, Longer and Uncut (1999) – Trey Parker and Marc Shaiman
69. Magnolia (1999) – Aimee Mann
70. Spartacus (1960) – Alex North

71. Pump Up the Volume (1971) – Various
72. Ragtime (1981) – Randy Newman
73. Tommy (1975) – Pete Townshend/Various
74. The Moderns (1988) – Mark Isham
75. Repo Man (1984) – Various
76. A Clockwork Orange (1971) – Walter Carlos
77. The Sweet Hereafter (1997) – Mychael Danna
78. Out of Africa (1985) – John Barry
79. Stop Making Sense (1984) – Talking Heads
80. Beauty and the Beast (1991) – Howard Ashman and Alan Menken

81. Local Hero (1983) – Mark Knopfler
82. Do the Right Thing (1989) – Branford Marsalis/Public Enemy
83. Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon (2000) – Tan Dun
84. Rushmore (1998) – Various
85. Merry Christmas, Mr. Lawrence (1984) – Ryuichi Sakamoto
86. This Is Spinal Tap (1984) – Spinal Tap
87. The Long Riders (1980) – Ry Cooder
88. Waiting to Exhale (1995) – Babyface/Whitney Houston
89. Jackie Brown (1997) – Various
90. To Kill a Mockingbird (1962) – Elmer Bernstein

91. Hedwig and the Angry Inch (2001) – John Cameron Mitchell
92. The Piano (1993) – Michael Nyman
93. The Virgin Suicides (2000) – Air
94. Planet of the Apes (1968) – Jerry Goldsmith
95. Good Will Hunting (1997) – Danny Elfman/Elliot Smith
96. Above the Rim (1994) – Various
97. Nashville (1975) – Various
98. Beetlejuice (1988) – Danny Elfman
99. One From the Heart (1982) – Tom Waits/Crystal Gayle
100. Blue Velvet (1986) – Angelo Badalamenti

Review: Starz’s ‘Dancing on the Edge’ hums along to a jazz beat

The period piece takes its sweet time in exploring the seductive stories behind the Jazz Age in England.

October 19, 2013|By Robert Lloyd, Los Angeles Times Television Critic
John Goodman stars in Starz’s “Dancing on the Edge.” (Starz )

There is something nicely unexpected about “Dancing on the Edge,” writer-director Stephen Poliakoff’s seductive drama of jazz and England in the early 1930s.

The series, which begins Saturday on Starz (it has already aired on the BBC), forms a kind of “Upstairs/Backstage” story with a mystery attached and comes in five parts, plus an epilogue — appendix might be the better word — in the form of interviews.

To be sure, jazz has often lurked at the background of British period pieces — Lord Peter Wimsey dragged to some Soho cellar, Bertie Wooster knocking out a chorus of “Minnie the Moocher.” The next season of “Downton Abbey” will feature a black American singer (Gary Carr) based on the historical Leslie “Hutch” Hutchinson, who cut a swath through British high society in the 1920s and ’30s.

A writer with a long list of fairly high-toned stage plays, film scripts and TV to his credit, Poliakoff was inspired in part by reading of the friendship of Duke Ellington with members of British royalty. In place of Ellington, he gives us Louis Lester (Chiwetel Ejiofor), a rare black British bandleader whose career starts to get traction when he crosses paths with hustling music journalist Stanley Mitchell (Matthew Goode), who is his entree as well to a world of upper-crust jazz fans.

At the suggestion of one (Anthony Head), they acquire a singer — two, in fact (Angel Coulby and Wunmi Mosaku). And things change.

Poliakoff takes his time, with long scenes in which people spend a little time coming to a point. The pace is mostly languorous, despite the jazz theme, and even when the going gets going, steps are only slightly quickened.

Where he falls short, oddly, is the music. The many original songs, all written by Adrian Johnston, sound less like lost classics than not-quite-successful pastiche. Hackneyed lyrics like, “Shout it loud/Head up proud / This girl’s going far/Blow, Joe, blow / Let ’em know / I’m gonna be a star” may comment profitably on the action, but they are not Cole Porter or Billy Strayhorn. The music is also — on purpose, it transpires, for effect — too modern for the era, both in arrangement and performance; not everyone will find that jarring, of course, or know the difference.

But Poliakoff is in any case less interested in jazz as music or culture than as a destabilizing, reorganizing force. Notwithstanding a few dropped names, he is scant on context and on the details whose mention and sharing are a natural and important part of that world, for musicians and fans alike. And despite the band’s stated rise, there are few scenes that express any palpable connection between players and crowd — or even muster a crowd. But perhaps that’s just how it was with the British.

His true business is elsewhere, with the love stories, a murder mystery, the collision of race and class, past and future, of bright hopes and dark desires. He uses the music to gather into close, sometimes very close, quarters a cast of characters whose diverse backgrounds might otherwise keep them apart. Indeed, they tend to go about in a pack as if joined at the hip, and to the exclusion of anyone else.

Rounding out this crowd are John Goodman as an American moneybags who keeps a little gold around (and on display) in case of another crash; a lovely Jacqueline Bisset as a semi-reclusive great lady, compensating for a personal loss by looking into new music; Janet Montgomery as a photographer who clicks with Lester; and Tom Hughes and Joanna Vanderham as one of those neurasthenic brother-sister dyads who promise seven kinds of trouble. The great Allan Corduner plays Stanley’s boss, Jenna-Louise Coleman his underappreciated assistant.

The faults are noticeable, really, only because so much else feels right. The film is beautifully shot and apportioned. Its engine hums, in low gear, mostly, but reliably. You are drawn in and along, just as the characters are drawn along, by music or money or sex or love, the taste of something better, hotter, cooler, more rewarding, more alive.